Scotland must wait until next month at the earliest to earn the two points that would seal a Euro 2024 place after Norway beat Georgia 2-1 in Oslo.
Steve Clarke's side won their first five qualifiers, but Spain and Norway could both still breach their tally of 15 points, with the top two qualifying.
The 12 October meeting with the Spanish in Seville is the Scots' next chance to secure a spot in Germany in 2024.
They would qualify even with defeat if Norway drop points in Cyprus.
The Norwegians did not do that on Tuesday, Erling Haaland heading in the opener midway through the first half, before Martin Odegaard doubling the advantage eight minutes later.
Budu Zivzivadze set up a nervy conclusion when he struck in stoppage time, but the hosts held on to keep their slim hopes alive.
In the other game in the group on Tuesday, Spain thrashed Cyprus 6-0 in Granada to move within six points of Scotland with a game in hand.
In this Group A campaign so far, Scotland have built on six straight group victories to close their failed World Cup bid with a string of impressive results, including a 2-0 victory over Spain at Hampden.
Cyprus have been beaten home and away, Georgia were undone at a rain-soaked Hampden, while Norway were stunned 2-1 in Oslo.
After the trip to Spain, Clarke's squad visit Georgia and host Norway before the draw for the finals in Germany on Saturday 2 December.
Qualification for Germany would mark consecutive European Championship appearances after the Scots played in the finals in 2021 - their first major men's tournament in 23 years.